The internet is of crucial importance because it can be used for various activities and daily activities. Starting from communication, entertainment and social media, and can also be associated with businesses and companies for the purposes of sending emails, tracking customers and sales, compiling and implementing marketing products, even for payments through internet banking or for moving server relocation.
Many factors are needed so that the internet can run smoothly to be utilized in various functions and needs. The internet requires a server that is connected to the data centre. The data centre is a media where server storage and web server hosting are located. This data centre is a ‘home’ for all data that is connected through a server. This data centre is very safe and must be safe because it is tasked with protecting data and all types of information from various hosting servers.
Data centre buildings have several important criteria, one of which is room temperature. Servers in the data centre generate hot temperatures continuously. Then this must be taken seriously. The data centre room temperature may not reach very high temperatures because it can cause the server to die and vice versa if the temperature becomes humid, the server may be at risk of short-circuiting to catch fire. Therefore the room temperature is very important for a data centre building.
What is the Data Centre?
Definition Data Centre is a place, building, or building that functions to store and operate a server. Aside from being a server place, the data centre also has other rooms intended to support the server to keep it uptime and avoid the risks of other damage.
Data centres are used for server storage media, management and management, to the dissemination of data and information accessed through the internet network. For this purpose, of course, the data centre must also be equipped with a computer network device that is also connected to the internet network.
The data centre has data processing tools that are used as data processing and processing centres. The data centre is likened to a brain or core of all data storage and processing. The data centre has a very broad network coverage, from the national level to the international level.
How to Build a Data Centre?
Broadly speaking, in building a place that will later function as a data centre, must pay attention to some things that must be owned by a data centre. A data centre must have several room partitions such as the following:
- Server room, usually this server room consists of several computers without a monitor and keyboard. These computers are connected to the network and serve as the core of data storage and processing. These computers are interconnected and must be very controlled by room temperature. Because if it gets too hot or humid, it will cause damage and losses.
- Network shelves, function as a liaison between servers and ISP optical fibre lines. Of course, the data that enters and exits must pass through the network shelves.
- UPS machines, function to be a backup power source if the power supply is suddenly cut off or dead. The UPS is able to be a temporary backup before the backup generator turns on.
- A backup generator runs on a diesel engine and will automatically turn on when the power fails.
- The cooling room, which serves to regulate the temperature in the server room so that the room temperature is not too hot.
- The machine for exchanging heat is located on the roof of the building and functions to release hot air inside the building.
- Concrete and steel construction, which aims to protect the server in the event of a natural disaster.
- Some refrigeration units work 24/7, these machines work by removing the heat absorbed by the cooling engine and then releasing it out or changing it as cold air. Don’t forget to also prepare several backup cooling programs/units.
- The network operations centre, which contains rooms for IT employees and IT security officers who are in charge of monitoring the data centre 24/7.
- Security officers are tasked with keeping the data centre building secure by using security cameras, identity card scans, and so on for physical security.
Maintenance of the data centre is no less important than the construction stage. There are several things that need to be considered about data centres, namely:
- Metrics about server performance, there is a server performance measurement standard that has been recognized by most IT people, namely the consortium SPEC or the Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation. Some of the criteria required are utilization, latency, and resource efficiency.
- Having competent IT employees, there are several important tasks for IT employees who work in data centres, namely system deployment (preparing systems), power source (electricity usage), hardware maintenance (maintenance and maintenance of hardware devices), software deployment (preparing software), network management (network analysis) and server security (securing data centre).
How Data Centres Work
How can data from the data centre storage be available on each user’s computer? There are several stages in the process of transferring this data, namely, the data stored in the data centre will be distributed through a network cable to the Internet Service Providers (ISP), then distributed to each modem and router, then the data can be received by the user’s computer. How it works and the performance of a data centre is very dependent on the resources it has, ranging from hardware, software, IT and physical security, to human resources or technical staff who handle it.
So that the data centre can run well and optimally, it needs to be supported by a variety of factors that can be the determinant. In addition to hardware and software facilities and security, the location and type of building also greatly affect the data centre. Some criteria as elements for a data centre building are:
- The location of buildings/data centre buildings must be in certain areas that have relatively small ratios of natural disasters such as floods, landslides, and volcanic eruptions, and minimal risk of earthquakes. Therefore, before choosing the right building to be used as a data centre, you should really pay attention to the type of land that is owned, because there are some areas that have poor soil types so it is very risky to build buildings on it.
- A large business or company that has its own data centre and server, must have not only one main server, but more than two data centres and backup servers. This is to anticipate if one of the data centres/servers that are owned is dead or damaged, then the company still has backups and backups of the data centre and server so that the data stored remains safe and can be accessed stably.
- Scalability, i.e. the level of scale setting for server usage. Data centres that have a degree of flexibility in service to users must have several choices of server and data centre usage in accordance with the needs of its users. Therefore efficiency and convenience are needed.
- Stable and fast, this is supported by the presence of an optical fibre internet network. Data centre and the server must keep uptime because down will give bad effect for users and IT staff who handle it.
Storage System in Data Centre
In the data centre, do you know where the data is located? How can you easily access it even though you don’t see its physical form? Previously must be understood in advance about what is meant by data. Data can come from anywhere, through sensors or scans, posting results on social media, digital photos and videos, online purchases and transactions, GPS coming from cell phones, and many others. Every day everyone in the world is able to make up to 2.5 Quintillion Bytes or the equivalent of 1,000,000,000,000 billion bytes of data.
Data throughout the world certainly requires a large storage area. Fortunately, until now technology will continue to develop, and data storage media will also be able to store and process a lot of data. Data centre centres also continue to be built and developed. A company as big as Google is very closed with its data centre, because if it is successfully hacked it will be very dangerous for that company.
So the idea is to have several servers spread across several cities and even across countries to maintain backups and backups of the data centre in the event of unexpected events. Another way is to disguise the data centre building so it does not look like a data centre building from outside. This can help outwit physical crimes against the data centre.
Back to the problem where data is stored, of course, all data is stored in the data centre. From computer and cellular devices owned by each person, it will certainly produce data. These data must, of course, be connected to the internet and then they can be connected to the ISP network and then stored in the data centre via fibre optic network cables.
The security system in a data centre building is very simple, both virtual and technology and software. 24/7 monitoring via CCTV cameras and other security equipment is required. Not only to monitor attacks from outside the building but also to monitor the small but detailed things that must be very considered in the data centre building itself.
Challenges in Data Centre
The challenges facing the data centre are certainly not far from security issues. Security challenges in the data centre are divided into two namely security issues related to technology and security issues related to humans.
There are several studies conducted by the IT team, as many as 69% mentioned that it took as much as 4 hours to create new Firewall rules for each network application. And as many as 74% say it takes several days to a week to update security devices. Basically, network security problems tend to arise due to human error (human error).
As mentioned earlier, ideally data centres have more than two data centres that are owned and spread in different cities or countries. Because in reality, there is a reason that as many as 47% of criminals are able to move and steal data from data centres easily, 77% of IT actors admit that centre data segmentation will be able to overcome this, but only 38% of organizations actually implement data segmentation this centre.
The Future of Data Centres
The data centre will still be needed for technological developments in the world. Because the data centre is the centre of data storage and processing. But what is the focus of attention for data centre development? That is the development of software technology. Public cloud and its supporting technologies will still dominate the world of the most appropriate, flexible, secure, and efficient data backup and storage.
Cloud computing systems have been divided into public clouds, hybrid clouds and private clouds. Users only need to use it according to the needs of each organization. But what is still needed in connection with the rapid advancement of the world of technology in the field of data centres is the availability, performance, security, and network scalability.